Check out the post I post for the CDW Blog:
How to Address 3 Next-Generation Firewall Management Challengeshttps://blog.cdw.com/services/how-to-address-3-next-generation-firewall-management-challenges
What is the OSCP
Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) is an entry-level hands-on penetration testing certification. The OSCP is one of a few certifications by Offensive Security. It consists of the self-study Penetration Testing Training with Kali Linux (PwK) class and an online proctored practical exam.
The course costs at minimum $800 USD and includes 30 days of lab access and one OSCP exam attempt. There are packages that include longer lab access and you can extend your lab access if you find you need longer to prepare.
What ISN’T the OSCP
- Current methods and techniques
- It won’t make you a l33t hax0r, but you will learn fundamentals
How long did you study?
I started working on it on Sept 2018, then life and the holidays got in the way of dedicated study time. I kept slowly and intermittently practicing until April 2019 when I REALLY started to get serious about completing the OSCP. This started crunch time. I am lucky that my partner was on board with me locking my self away to focus on
How did you do to study?
I started by going through both the Offensive Security’s Penetration Testing with Kali Linux (PwK) workbook and then watching the associated videos. They are both fantastic resources providing a solid base of knowledge you need for the exam. I had the printed out the PwK workbook printed out and bound to save my eyes from staring at a screen. Through all my studies, I took a lot of notes. I used these notes when working on machines in the lab, exam, and other CTF style boxes I worked. Below are copies of the notes I created while studying.
- Buffer Overflows
- Password attacks
- Shell and Linux / UNIX
- Web Exploitation
Once I completed the workbook and videos, it was time to sit down and start to work on machines in the Lab. While working on the labs I began to branch out and gather and learn from various sources across the internet. As I worked through the lab and got closer to my date, I started to focus on my weak topics for me that were Windows Exploitation and Windows Privilege Escalation. I have added some of the main links and books I used to study, there are many more links in my notes.
- OSCP-like Vulnhub VMs
- Phrack - Smashing The Stack For Fun And Profit
- Basic Linux Privilege Escalation
- Pentestmonkey SQL Injection
- Windows Privilege Escalation Fundamentals
- Penetration Testing: A Hands-On Introduction to Hacking - Georgia Weidman
- The Hacker Playbook: Practical Guide To Penetration Testing - Peter Kim
- The Hacker Playbook 2: Practical Guide To Penetration Testing - Peter Kim
- Hacking: The Art of Exploitation - Jon Erickson
OMG the Exam…
The OSCP exam is a practical test that is 24 hours of hacking in a mock environment attempting to break into various targets. You will then have another 24 hours to write a report based on your findings from the exam. To obtain your OSCP you must submit a report I'll talk more about the report later. The Exam is proctored, you will run software that will capture your screen and webcam, both of which will also be monitored by one or more proctors. There are limits to the tools you can during the Exam:
Spoofing (IP, ARP, DNS, NBNS, etc)https://support.offensive-security.com/oscp-exam-guide/
Commercial tools or services (Metasploit Pro, Burp Pro, etc.)
Automatic exploitation tools (e.g. db_autopwn, browser_autopwn, SQLmap, SQLninja
Mass vulnerability scanners (e.g. Nessus, NeXpose, OpenVAS, Canvas, Core Impact, SAINT, etc.)
Features in other tools that utilize either forbidden or restricted exam limitations
You are limited to use Metasploit once during the lab
These limitations are an example of why it is important to fully read through the exam guide and reporting template to make sure you have all the proofs and meet the reporting requirements. These guides are found at the following links:
Lab and Exam Reporting Info: https://support.offensive-security.com/pwk-reporting/
OSCP Exam Guide: https://support.offensive-security.com/oscp-exam-guide/
Proctoring FAQ: https://support.offensive-security.com/proctoring-faq/
My exam agenda
When planning for my Exam I created a high-level schedule to follow. This is an important and way
- Wake up … Breakfast
- Connect to Proctor and follow preocess - 15 mins before start
- Receive access details and connect to VPN - 15 mins
- Read requirements and write down in notes - 30 - 45 mins
- Initial Enumeration of targets - 1 hour
- Hack Away!
- Eat Lunch
- Eat Dinner
- Probably still Hack…..
Exam Tips and Tactics
This is a list of various mostly non-technical tips I have for when taking the Exam. When reading through people's challenges on Reddit, Twitter and Blog posts I saw a lot of people ran into less than technical issues when taking their Exams.
- I'll repeat this here make sure you read through the exam guide and reporting template to make sure you have all the proofs and meet the reporting requirements!
- Attempt to limit distractions and find ways to go into flow
- Manage your Time Management wisely
- I used Pomodoro to help divide up my day. This method is ~25 minutes working, take a 5-minute break, repeat. I changed targets on each cycle if I was not making progress and was just grinding away on a machine. This method helped me getting stuck on one machine for extended periods of time.
- Keep a timeline of the day
- This will help you reference and screenshots or recordings you created later.
- You are your own worst enemy: Avoid going down a rabbit hole
- Breath…go for a walk…pet a cat…Have a snack...
- Enumerate Enumerate Enumerate
- If you are not finding your way into a system or the way to escalate privilege, enumerate more.
- Screenshot, Screen record, track everything! This will take the stress off of creating the report the next day.
There are two topics when it comes to reporting there is the Lab report and the Exam report. Offensive Security provides a guide for reporting at the following URL: https://support.offensive-security.com/pwk-reporting/. This contains some templates and some recommendations on how to manage data.
One of the first questions people ask is if I did the Lab report. I decided not to do the Lab report, it only worth 5 points, and I did not find that the time to create the report was worth it for me. However, I did write a mock report to practice ahead of the Exam. The made sure that my first Exam reporting experience was not during the Exam when I would be exhausted.
When it comes to my Exam report, I started my report after I had finished my Exam but has not closed out with my proctor and start to create a very very very rough document with the screenshots and other content. I did this to make sure I had satisfied all of the requirements and it would let me go back and recreate or regather any Proofs I may have missed. After I thought I had everything and the adrenalin had started to wear off I went to sleep and got started the next day and finished the document throughout the next day.
- The OSCP was a great experience and very challenging
- There is a lot to learn
- Make sure significant people in your life understand the time commitment
- ABL, Always Be
- Have fun, good luck, and #tryharder
In July I wrote for the CDW blog about the new version of the Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) software.
This project started with the idea of purchasing a cheap security system off one of the Chinese stores. After a little hunting, I found Digoo DG HOSA 433MHz 2G&GSM&WIFI Smart Home Security Alarm System Protective Shell Alert with APP which looked interesting so picked one up to tear apart. I was curious about how various communication methods were implemented.
This is the first part of this adventure the next part will be exploring the firmware of the device. With that let's take a look at the hardware.
After the device showed up, I quickly got down to taking the device apart. In my haste, I didn't take many good photos of it intact. The front side of the board is straight forward; it contains the screen, button array for all user input, and a lot of useful test points. The front side is pictured below.
The most significant information found on the front side of the board is the notation PG-103, which is also found in the firmware (spoiler). After some searching, I found this device is also branded as the PGST PG-103. This kind of rebranding of hardware is not unusual for a lot of Chinese devices.
Now switching to the back of the board, which is the business side of the board with the main chips and modules providing the various communication methods. When opening that device I encountered the intrusion detection button. This button causes the device to go into an alarm mode and require a reset of the device to come back online. For my testing, I bypassed this button bridging both sides of it.
When inspecting the board, I found a few significant components and modules on the board. I was not surprised to see that most of the major communication parts are off the shelf modules. The components listed below are highlighted in the image above and the relevant data sheets where available are linked.
- U2 - 433mhz Receiver: Synoxo SYN551R (datasheet)
- M2 - Cellular module: Quictel M26
- M3 - WIFI module: HF-LPB120 (not much good source material on this module)
- U7 - Touch Controller: Holtek BS83B16A-3
- U8 - Main CPU: Gigadevices GD32F105RCT6 (datasheet)
The main processor is a GigaDevice GD32 chip which is a series that is very similar to the of STMicroelectronics STM32 chips. The GD32F105 chip uses an ARM-based instruction set and has the same pinout as the STM32F105 component.
The high-level block diagram for the device is pretty straight forward. The GD32F105 chip is the primary processing and control of the external communication modules. This allows for a modular architecture all of the peripherals.
+-----------------------+ | Cellular +-----------+ | Quictel M26 | | +-----------------------+ | +-----------------------+ +--------+-------+ | WIFI +--+ CPU | | HF-LPB120-1 | | GD32F105RCT6 | +-----------------------+ +--------+-+-----+ +-----------------------+ | | | 433mhz receiver | | | | SYN511R +-----------+ | +-----------------------+ | +-----------------------+ | | Keypad Controller +-------------+ | Holtek BS83B16A-3 | +-----------------------+
When exploring the board there are many test points on the board and tracing them out I was able to trace out most of the pins to where they connect on the controller.
- SYN515R Pin 10 (DO) -> CPU PB9 (62)
- Unknown -> CPU PA5
- Unknown -> CPU PA6
- Unknown -> CPU PA8
- U7 SCL -> Unknown
- U7 SDA -> Unknown
- DAC_OUT -> CPU PA4 (20)
- WIFI UART TX -> CPU PA2 (16)
- WIFI UART RX -> CPU PA3 (17)
- GSM UART TX -> CPU PA12 (45)
- GSM UART RX -> CPU PA13 (46)
- U1 (F117) Pin 6 -> CPU PB 8
After investigating the hardware I was able to extract the firmware and start the reversing process. I will cover what I have found in future posts. For now, if you are interested in more higher resolution photos of the board I have posted them on my Flickr account.
In March I posted the following article on CDW blog
Back on May 18th, I attended the inaugural BsidesNH event. It was a fantastic one-day event. The day started pretty early for me driving down from Maine arriving at Southern NH University. I arrived to pick up the fantastic badge made out of an old 3.5" disk. After grabbing some coffee and a snack I settled into the auditorium and for a day of great talks. There were a few that stood out to me from the day that I will talk about.
The second talk of the day was Ghost in the Shell: When AppSec Goes Wrong by Tony Martin. Tony first talked about covered some basics of web application security. He framed these issues around the research he has done into various NAS devices and vulnerabilities he has discovered. Including the ability to create shadow users that have administrative access to devices but are not visible through the administrative interfaces of the device.
After lunch was Chinese and Russian Hacking Communities presented by Winnona DeSombre and Dan Byrnes, Intelligence Analyst from Recorded Future. They covered operations and cultures of Chinese and Russian underground groups. This was a very entertaining presentation and a summary of the information contained in the report: Thieves and Geeks: Russian and Chinese Hacking Communities.
The second to last talk of the day was Hunting for Lateral Movement: Offense, Defense, and Corgis presented by Ryan Nolette. He covered the ways attackers move around and infiltrate further into a network...Corgies. A great quote that stuck with me from his talk was: “If you teach an analyst how to think they will punch above their weight.” I feel this quote not only applies to security analysts but all levels of IT professionals.
BsidesNH was a well run and enjoyable event and a great addition to the Security events in New England. Thanks to all of the organizers and sponsors. I look forward to attending next year!
During my OSCP studies, I realized I needed a more efficient system for cracking password hashes. The screaming CPU fans and high CPU usage became a problem. I first tried using hashcat and the GPU on my MacBook Pro in OS X. There are some bugs and problems with hashcat on OS X that would make it crash in the middle of cracking a hash. Also, I was not interested in investing a server with a bunch of GPUs, the high costs to do this would outweigh the amount of time I need the system. All of this lead me to do a little research and found the instructions in the following link to build an AWS instance for password cracking.
Since that post was created there have been some changes to the offerings in AWS EC2 leading me write this post.
If you wish to skip ahead I have created scripts to automate the processes in the rest of this post. They are both in my
githuband can be downloaded at the following links.
For the rest of the article I will cover some of the instance options in EC2, installation of the needed Linux packages, the basic setup of Hashcat, running Hashcat, and finally monitoring and benchmarks of an EC2 instance.
AWS EC2 Options
There are many options for EC2 instances, they have a huge range
- G3 - https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/g3/
- P2 - https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/p2/
I found the g3 instances to be the more cost effective tier. For my testing I opted to use the g3.4xlarge tier. Next to choose the AMI image, appropriate the appropriate operating system.
There are two options that are I tested hashcat on they are both Ubuntu based. I’m sure there are many other available options that will work too, but I am familiar with Ubuntu systems. The first option is a standard Ubuntu image, there is nothing special about this image and it requires configuration to add the GPU drivers and a little more work.
The next option is a Deep Learning image, this image is preconfigured with the GPU drivers and was originally designed for machine learning applications. I found the the pre-configuration allowed for me skip a few steps in building out a new system.
Instance Build and config
Once you have the instance deployed there are a few steps to get the Instance prepared for hashcat, the steps are a little bit different between a Standard and a Deep Learning Ubuntu instance.
apt cronjob may already be running and you will have to wait it out.
Prepare Machine (Standard Ubuntu)
This script will install all the required packages and the Nvidia GPU drivers on a vanilla Ubuntu installation.
#!/bin/bash # mostly copied from: https://medium.com/@iraklis/running-hashcat-v4-0-0-in-amazons-aws-new-p3-16xlarge-instance-e8fab4541e9b # sudo apt-get update -yq sudo apt-get install -yq build-essential linux-headers-$(uname -r) unzip p7zip-full linux-image-extra-virtual sudo apt-get install -yq ocl-icd-libopencl1 opencl-headers clinfo #sudo apt-get install -yq libhwloc-plugins libhwloc5 libltdl7 libpciaccess0 libpocl2 libpocl2-common ocl-icd-libopencl1 pocl-opencl-icd sudo apt-get install -yq python3-pip pip3 install psutil sudo touch /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf sudo bash -c "echo 'blacklist nouveau' >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf" sudo bash -c "echo 'blacklist lbm-nouveau' >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf" sudo bash -c "echo 'options nouveau modeset=0' >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf" sudo bash -c "echo 'alias nouveau off' >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf" sudo bash -c "echo 'alias lbm-nouveau off' >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf" sudo touch /etc/modprobe.d/nouveau-kms.conf sudo bash -c "echo 'options nouveau modeset=0' >> /etc/modprobe.d/nouveau-kms.conf" sudo update-initramfs -u sudo reboot ### Install nVidia Drivers wget http://us.download.nvidia.com/tesla/410.104/NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-410.104.run sudo /bin/bash NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-410.104.run --ui=none --no-questions --silent -X
Prepare Machine (Deep Learning Ubuntu)
In comparison the previous script there is a much simpler script to prepare the Deep Learning instance. The main focus is installing the needed archive extraction tools.
#!/bin/bash sudo apt update sudo apt upgrade sudo apt install clinfo unzip p7zip-full sudo apt install build-essential linux-headers-$(uname -r) # Optional sudo apt-get install -yq python3-pip pip3 install psutil
Now we need to download and extract the star of the show Hashcat. The link in the wget below points to the the most recent version as of writing however you might want to check to see if there is a more recent version at the main site: https://hashcat.net/hashcat/
wget https://hashcat.net/files/hashcat-22.214.171.124z 7z x hashcat-126.96.36.199z
You will need some wordlists for hashcat to use to crack passwords, he commands listed are for some wordlists I like to use when cracking. You should however add whichever lists are your favories.
mkdir ~/wordlists git clone https://github.com/danielmiessler/SecLists.git ~/wordlists/seclists wget -nH http://downloads.skullsecurity.org/passwords/rockyou.txt.bz2 -O ~/wordlists/rockyou.txt.bz2 cd ~/wordlists bunzip2 ./rockyou.txt.bz2 cd ~
Now it is time to run hashcat and crack some passwords. When running hashcat I had the best performance with the arguments
-O -w 3. Below is an example command line I've used
./hashcat-5.1.0/hashcat64.bin --username -m 1800 ./megashadow256.txt wordlists/rockyou.txt -r hashcat-5.1.0/rules/best64.rule -O -w 3
Monitoring the Nvidia GPU
ubuntu@ip-172-31-17-6:~$ sudo nvidia-smi Fri Apr 26 14:43:49 2019 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | NVIDIA-SMI 410.104 Driver Version: 410.104 CUDA Version: 10.0 | |-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | GPU Name Persistence-M| Bus-Id Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC | | Fan Temp Perf Pwr:Usage/Cap| Memory-Usage | GPU-Util Compute M. | |===============================+======================+======================| | 0 Tesla M60 Off | 00000000:00:1E.0 Off | 0 | | N/A 37C P0 42W / 150W | 0MiB / 7618MiB | 97% Default | +-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Processes: GPU Memory | | GPU PID Type Process name Usage | |=============================================================================| | No running processes found | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
This example shows a GPU being used by hashcat.
ubuntu@ip-172-31-17-6:~$ sudo nvidia-smi Fri Apr 26 14:44:44 2019 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | NVIDIA-SMI 410.104 Driver Version: 410.104 CUDA Version: 10.0 | |-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ | GPU Name Persistence-M| Bus-Id Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC | | Fan Temp Perf Pwr:Usage/Cap| Memory-Usage | GPU-Util Compute M. | |===============================+======================+======================| | 0 Tesla M60 Off | 00000000:00:1E.0 Off | 0 | | N/A 46C P0 141W / 150W | 828MiB / 7618MiB | 100% Default | +-------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+ +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Processes: GPU Memory | | GPU PID Type Process name Usage | |=============================================================================| | 0 11739 C ./hashcat-5.1.0/hashcat64.bin 817MiB | +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Conclusion and Benchmarks
Finally here is a benchmark I ran on a g3.4xlarge instance. This instance type contains 1 GPU. These results give an idea of performance for this AWS EC2 instance type.
ubuntu@ip-172-31-17-6:~$ ./hashcat-5.1.0/hashcat64.bin -O -w 3 -b hashcat (v5.1.0) starting in benchmark mode... * Device #2: Not a native Intel OpenCL runtime. Expect massive speed loss. You can use --force to override, but do not report related errors. nvmlDeviceGetFanSpeed(): Not Supported OpenCL Platform #1: NVIDIA Corporation ====================================== * Device #1: Tesla M60, 1904/7618 MB allocatable, 16MCU OpenCL Platform #2: The pocl project ==================================== * Device #2: pthread-Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2686 v4 @ 2.30GHz, skipped. Benchmark relevant options: =========================== * --optimized-kernel-enable * --workload-profile=3 Hashmode: 0 - MD5 Speed.#1.........: 11611.6 MH/s (90.74ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:512 Thr:256 Vec:4 Hashmode: 100 - SHA1 Speed.#1.........: 4050.2 MH/s (65.01ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:128 Thr:256 Vec:2 Hashmode: 1400 - SHA2-256 Speed.#1.........: 1444.5 MH/s (91.98ms) @ Accel:256 Loops:128 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 1700 - SHA2-512 Speed.#1.........: 499.4 MH/s (66.78ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 2500 - WPA-EAPOL-PBKDF2 (Iterations: 4096) Speed.#1.........: 189.8 kH/s (42.76ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 1000 - NTLM Speed.#1.........: 18678.1 MH/s (56.58ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:512 Thr:256 Vec:2 Hashmode: 3000 - LM Speed.#1.........: 10529.6 MH/s (50.60ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:1024 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 5500 - NetNTLMv1 / NetNTLMv1+ESS Speed.#1.........: 10650.8 MH/s (49.60ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:256 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 5600 - NetNTLMv2 Speed.#1.........: 829.3 MH/s (80.24ms) @ Accel:256 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 1500 - descrypt, DES (Unix), Traditional DES Speed.#1.........: 442.0 MH/s (37.81ms) @ Accel:4 Loops:1024 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 500 - md5crypt, MD5 (Unix), Cisco-IOS $1$ (MD5) (Iterations: 1000) Speed.#1.........: 4209.1 kH/s (51.39ms) @ Accel:1024 Loops:500 Thr:32 Vec:1 Hashmode: 3200 - bcrypt $2*$, Blowfish (Unix) (Iterations: 32) Speed.#1.........: 7572 H/s (33.02ms) @ Accel:16 Loops:4 Thr:8 Vec:1 Hashmode: 1800 - sha512crypt $6$, SHA512 (Unix) (Iterations: 5000) Speed.#1.........: 76958 H/s (83.99ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:128 Thr:32 Vec:1 Hashmode: 7500 - Kerberos 5 AS-REQ Pre-Auth etype 23 Speed.#1.........: 149.4 MH/s (56.00ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:64 Vec:1 Hashmode: 13100 - Kerberos 5 TGS-REP etype 23 Speed.#1.........: 152.1 MH/s (55.00ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:64 Vec:1 Hashmode: 15300 - DPAPI masterkey file v1 (Iterations: 23999) Speed.#1.........: 32703 H/s (84.02ms) @ Accel:256 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 15900 - DPAPI masterkey file v2 (Iterations: 7999) Speed.#1.........: 21692 H/s (96.24ms) @ Accel:256 Loops:128 Thr:32 Vec:1 Hashmode: 7100 - macOS v10.8+ (PBKDF2-SHA512) (Iterations: 35000) Speed.#1.........: 5940 H/s (40.09ms) @ Accel:64 Loops:32 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 11600 - 7-Zip (Iterations: 524288) Speed.#1.........: 4522 H/s (55.87ms) @ Accel:256 Loops:128 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 12500 - RAR3-hp (Iterations: 262144) Speed.#1.........: 18001 H/s (56.74ms) @ Accel:4 Loops:16384 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 13000 - RAR5 (Iterations: 32767) Speed.#1.........: 18135 H/s (55.93ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 6211 - TrueCrypt PBKDF2-HMAC-RIPEMD160 + XTS 512 bit (Iterations: 2000) Speed.#1.........: 121.7 kH/s (59.39ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:32 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 13400 - KeePass 1 (AES/Twofish) and KeePass 2 (AES) (Iterations: 6000) Speed.#1.........: 68380 H/s (158.89ms) @ Accel:512 Loops:256 Thr:32 Vec:1 Hashmode: 6800 - LastPass + LastPass sniffed (Iterations: 500) Speed.#1.........: 1088.7 kH/s (48.51ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:62 Thr:256 Vec:1 Hashmode: 11300 - Bitcoin/Litecoin wallet.dat (Iterations: 199999) Speed.#1.........: 2107 H/s (78.97ms) @ Accel:128 Loops:64 Thr:256 Vec:1 Started: Fri Apr 26 14:36:56 2019 Stopped: Fri Apr 26 14:42:03 2019
If you've made it this far congratulation and happy cracking!
On March 6th Cisco released 29 high and medium rated PSIRT notices for NX-OS based platforms. These platforms include the Cisco Nexus 3000 - 9000 series and Nexus adjacent platforms FX-OS and UCS Fabric Interconnect platforms. Not all advisories affect all platforms but all platforms are affected by at least one high rated vulnerability. The vulnerabilities range from command and code execution, privilege escalation, denial of service, and arbitrary file read vulnerabilities. This is just about everything bad that could affect core infrastructure devices.
If you haven't updated your switch in a while this is probably the time too. Within some of the advisories Cisco notes that they are providing free updates:
Cisco has released free software updates that address the vulnerability described in this advisory. Customers may only install and expect support for software versions and feature sets for which they have purchased a license.
I've included a table of the fixed in versions notes as of the writing of this post. I would recommend looking at the advisories to assist in selecting the best version as there are other code versions that have integrated the fixes.
|Nexus 1000v||5.2(1)SM3(2.1) (Hyper-V)
|Nexus 5500, 5600, and 6000 |
Nexus 7000 and 7700
|Nexus 9000 and 9500||9.2(2)|
|UCS 6200 and 6300 Series Fabric Interconnects|
UCS 6400 Series Fabric Interconnects
Cisco has a bundled advisory for all of the high rated notices at the following link,
I have also included a laundry list of notices including both high and medium rated vulnerabilities for your reference.
- CVE-2019-1585 Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Fabric Switches Application-Centric Infrastructure Mode Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1588 Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Fabric Switches Application-Centric Infrastructure Mode Arbitrary File Read Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1591 Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Fabric Switches Application Centric Infrastructure Mode Shell Escape Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1595 Cisco Nexus 5600 and 6000 Series Switches Fibre Channel over Ethernet Denial of Service Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1605 Cisco NX-OS Software NX-API Arbitrary Code Execution Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1593 Cisco NX-OS Software Bash Shell Role-Based Access Control Bypass Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1594 Cisco NX-OS Software 802.1X Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN Denial of Service Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1614 Cisco NX-OS Software NX-API Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1606 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1607 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1608 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1609 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1610 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1611 Cisco FXOS and NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1612 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1613 Cisco NX-OS Software CLI Command Injection Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1600 Cisco FXOS and NX-OS Software Unauthorized Directory Access Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1602 Cisco NX-OS Software Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1616 Cisco NX-OS Software Cisco Fabric Services Denial of Service Vulnerability
2019-1601 Cisco NX-OS Software Unauthorized Filesystem Access Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1599 Cisco NX-OS Software Netstack Denial of Service Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1617 Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches Standalone NX-OS Mode Fibre Channel over Ethernet NPV Denial of Service Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1596 Cisco NX-OS Software Bash Shell Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1603 Cisco NX-OS Software Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1604 Cisco NX-OS Software Privilege Escalation Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1615 Cisco NX-OS Software Image Signature Verification Vulnerability
- CVE-2019-1597 and CVE-2019-1598 Cisco FXOS and NX-OS Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Denial of Service Vulnerabilities
- CVE-2019-1618 Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches Standalone NX-OS Mode Tetration Analytics Agent Arbitrary Code Execution Vulnerability